The U-curve model for adjustment was first introduced by a Norwegian sociologist Sverre Lysgaard in , and it has been developed by other scholars during. by Lysgaard in ; more recently, however, its applicability to research in the The U-curve model was first described by Lysgaard in his study of. “Adjustment in a foreign society: Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting the United States.” by Sverre Lysgaard, International Social.

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All interviewees agree that they knew very little about ,ysgaard country before their arrival, and that they might as well have ended up somewhere else.

The cultural traits involved at this stage are often implicit values and norms, which makes it difficult to determine when exactly sojourners move into the intercultural stage.

At this point it is important that companies help these individuals re-establish a sense of belonging. The concept of “situational identities”, on the other hand, is useful because it underlines a basic characteristic of all self-images.

At the micro-level, we constantly shift between gender, family, professional, social and ethnic identities, but we are often unaware of such adaptations because they happen all the time. I offer a complementary model of acculturation, containing the stages of arrival, the two-year crisis and interculturality, which to me explains the observations made in the interviews.

According to the methodological categories established by Dr. Its symptoms may be physical illness and physical strain as well as psychological frustration, homesickness, depression Varner and Beamer After a couple of years in Denmark, Sandra recalls, she wanted to distance herself from Danish culture.

Some had already been offered jobs or studentships in Denmark, which determined their move, while others were invited by Danish friends or partners. In terms of structural assimilation, the experiences of immigrants and sojourners, in which category I place my Scots, differ considerably.

Such a distinction is problematic in terms of my own analysis. To these may be added a possible reverse culture shock, which I have chosen to ignore because it is of limited use in relation to the present argument. These identities are changeable — dependent on the configuration of the interaction goals, individual wants and needs, roles, statuses, lsygaard activities in the situation.

They had come to realise that the nature of their Scottishness was changing as they adapted to the Danish way of life; they were on their way to becoming everyday Danes and holiday Scots. I have divided my discussion into three parts: W-curve When migrants return to their home countries, they often have to go through a similar kind of adaptation process. The third stage of adjustment is characterised by Beamer and Varner as the ability to “cooperate more effectively with members of the host culture.


It awakens the sojourner from the complacency of the holiday stage and forces him or her to confront fundamental differences in cultural norms and values.

My alternative model of cultural adaptation was originally developed on the basis of my field work, but I have since compared my results to personal experiences living abroad as well as later conversations with fellow-sojourners.

The discussion of cultural adaptation presupposes a definition of the concept of identity. Only upon their return to the home country are they confronted with the deviations between their own behavioural patterns and those of their native culture. While one has been staying abroad, there may have been changes in the home country’s political situation, technology, or popular culture, for instance.

Yet I believe that Euro-Europeans are comparable to other sojourners in terms of cultural adaptation.

In a cultural No Man’s Land – or, how long does culture shock last

Compared lysbaard the four primary identities abovethey are less stable and are driven by external situational features and are subsequently internalized by individuals operating in the society.

Namely, as Stuart Hall puts it in his introduction to Questions of Cultural Identitythat “identities are never unified.

My primary research tools are ethnographic, using qualitative data such as personal observations of intercultural settings as well as research interviews as primary sources. They illustrate language adjustment, changed behaviours and the emergence of a new set of values. They will encounter local authorities in the form of their GP, tax officers and various municipal bodies, lyysgaard as they normally have a job upon their arrival — or will find one very soon thereafter — they are perceived as a positive addition to the local workforce rather than a potential burden.

First of all, my interviews have left me with the impression that acculturation is a very lengthy process. In Scotland young professionals do not wear waterproofs — except if they are on the golf course or in the hills.

All live in the Copenhagen area, which was where I was based at the time.

Lysfaard obligations determine how you organise your daily life; you can now manage without the help of local colleagues, and at some point you stop wondering. In my interviews I tried to find out why the Scots would join ethnic societies. In practice, this rarely works. In terms of sampling, I think my choice of seven immigrants is fairly representative. My seven interviewees have accepted that they are now living in Denmark for an indefinite period of time, but do not rule out the possibility of another move — either back to Scotland or to other parts of lysgaqrd world.

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I am aware that long-term stationing 1955 off some employees, but if the rewards offered by the company i. Using Lysgaard as their theoretical basis, Iris Varner and Linda Lydgaard explain culture shock in terms of four stages: I think it is important to realise that cultural assimilation cannot be achieved within a year or two, but requires a longer time-span.

They were in their early twenties when they left Scotland, and with the exception of one couple travelled on their own. I accept that sojourners may not take this long before they are able to manage in their new culture; however, their insight lysgaarr be confined to relatively few aspects of the host culture, and I doubt that they can provide the comprehensive perspective required to create an atmosphere of mutual understanding.

Although their structural assimilation was fast, the Scots agreed that adaptation only really took off after the culture shock endured during the second year, and that their cultural adjustment never really ended. On his arrival in a new country, year-old George recalls the strange feeling he had when crossing the border without anyone asking him why he wanted to come here.

In a cultural No Man’s Land –

Others would draw on work colleagues in order to obtain an insider perspective on their new culture. After the initial phase of discovery, in which they open their eyes to a new environment and possibly endure a series lysgaarr minor downturns in their attempts to cope, sojourners move into the second stage of acculturation. A similar situation is described by Fiona, who had been in Copenhagen for two years when I met her.

I regard Euro-Europeans as a special type of sojourner arising from the need for a mobile workforce within the European labour market.